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Somatic Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Could Expand the Number of Patients That Benefit From Poly (ADP Ribose) Polymerase Inhibitors in Ovarian Cancer

Hennessy, B.T.J., Timms, K.M., Carey, M.S., Gutin, A., Meyer, L.A., Flake, D.D., I., Abkevich, V., Potter, J., Pruss, D., Glenn, P., et al

Purpose 
The prevalence of BRCA½ mutations in germline DNA from unselected ovarian cancer patients is 11% to 15.3%. It is important to determine the frequency of somatic BRCA½ changes, given the sensitivity of BRCA-mutated cancers to poly (ADP ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1) inhibitors and platinum analogs.

Patients and Methods 
In 235 unselected ovarian cancers, BRCA½ was sequenced in 235, assessed by copy number analysis in 95, and tiling arrays in 65. 113 tumors were sequenced for TP53. BRCA½ transcript levels were assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction in 220. When available for tumors with BRCA½ mutations, germline DNA was sequenced.

Results 
Forty-four mutations (19%) in BRCA1 (n = 31)/BRCA2 (n = 13) were detected, including one homozygous BRCA1 intragenic deletion. BRCA½ mutations were particularly common (23%) in high-grade serous cancers. In 28 patients with available germline DNA, nine (42.9%) of 21 and two (28.6%) of seven BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations were demonstrated to be somatic, respectively. Five mutations not previously identified in germline DNA were more commonly somatic than germline (four of 11 v one of 17; P = .062). There was a positive association between BRCA1 and TP53 mutations (P = .012). BRCA½ mutations were associated with improved progression-free survival (PFS) after platinum-based chemotherapy in univariate (P = .032; hazard ratio [HR] = 0.65; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.98) and multivariate (P = .019) analyses. BRCA½ deficiency, defined as BRCA½ mutations or expression loss (in 24 [13.3%] BRCA½–wild-type cancers), was present in 67 ovarian cancers (30%) and was also significantly associated with PFS in univariate (P = .026; HR = 0.67; 95% CI, 0.47 to 0.96) and multivariate (P = .008) analyses.

Conclusion
BRCA½ somatic and germline mutations and expression loss are sufficiently common in ovarian cancer to warrant assessment for prediction of benefit in clinical trials of PARP1 inhibitors.

Citation

Hennessy, B.T.J., Timms, K.M., Carey, M.S., Gutin, A., Meyer, L.A., Flake, D.D., I., Abkevich, V., Potter, J., Pruss, D., Glenn, P., et al "Somatic Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Could Expand the Number of Patients That Benefit From Poly (ADP Ribose) Polymerase Inhibitors in Ovarian Cancer" Journal of Clinical Oncology (2010): 3,570–6