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Salsalate Treatment Improves Glycemia Without Altering Adipose Tissue in Non-Diabetic Obese Hispanics

Alderete, T.L., Sattler, F.R., Richey, J.M., Allayee, H., Mittelman, S.D., Sheng, X., Tucci, J., Gyllenhammer, L.E., Grand, E.G., Goran, M.I.

Objective
Salsalate treatment has well-known effects on improving glycemia and the objective of this study was to examine whether the mechanism of this effect is related to changes in adipose tissue.

Methods
We conducted a randomized double-blind and placebo-controlled trial in obese Hispanics (18-35 years). The intervention consisted of 4 g/day of salsalate (n=11) versus placebo (n=13) for 4 weeks. Outcome measures included glycemia, adiposity, ectopic fat, and adipose tissue gene expression and inflammation.

Results
In those receiving salsalate, plasma fasting glucose decreased by 3.4% (P<0.01), free fatty acids decreased by 42.5% (P=0.06) and adiponectin increased by 27.7% (P<0.01). Salsalate increased insulin AUC by 38% (P=0.01) and HOMA-B by 47.2% (P<0.01) while estimates of insulin sensitivity/resistance were unaffected. These metabolic improvements occurred without changes in total, abdominal, visceral, or liver fat. Plasma markers of inflammation/immune activation were unchanged following salsalate. Salsalate had no effects on adipose tissue including adipocyte size, presence of crown-like structures, or gene expression of adipokines, immune cell markers, or cytokines downstream of NF-κB with the exception of downregulation of IL-1β (P<0.01).

Conclusions
Our findings suggest that metabolic improvements in response to salsalate occurred without alterations in adiposity, ectopic fat, or adipose tissue gene expression and inflammation.

Citation

Alderete, T.L., Sattler, F.R., Richey, J.M., Allayee, H., Mittelman, S.D., Sheng, X., Tucci, J., Gyllenhammer, L.E., Grand, E.G., Goran, M.I. "Salsalate Treatment Improves Glycemia Without Altering Adipose Tissue in Non-Diabetic Obese Hispanics" Obesity (2015): 543–51